Cyber Insurance & Security Glossary

A complete glossary of essential Cyber Security & Insurance terms.

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  • Anti-Spyware
    Anti-spyware is a type of software that is designed to detect and remove unwanted spyware programs.
  • Antivirus
    Antivirus is software that is designed to prevent, search for, detect, and remove software viruses, and other malicious software like worms, trojans, adware, and more.
  • App Attack
    An app attack occurs when a user unknowingly installs a harmful app on their tablet or smartphone and the app in turn steals their personal data.
  • Appliances
    Appliances are a combination of hardware and software security elements in one solution. This lets you plug appliances in rather than installing the software separately
  • Application Control
    Application control allows you to control the use of applications that may be inappropriate for use on business computers or networks
  • Application Layer
    An Application Layer is one of the seven layers in the Open-System Interconnection (OSI) Model of the TCP/IP protocol Suite. Application Layer defines the way process-to-process communication happens in a network; it only offers a strong communication interface and end user services.
  • Appraisal
    an estimate of value
  • Arbitration
    a binding dispute resolution tactic whereby a conciliator with no interest in the outcome intercedes.
  • Architecture
    Architecture is a structure that defines or describes the very fundamentals of a system or an organization, its components, the relationship between each of these components, their relationship to the overall system, and finally, their effectiveness in guiding the system towards its goals.
  • Assessed Value
    estimated value for real or personal property established by a taxing entity
  • Asset
    probable future economic benefits obtained or controlled by a particular entity as a result of past transactions or events. An asset has three essential characteristics: It embodies a probable future benefit that involves a capacity, singly or in combination with other assets, to contribute directly or indirectly to future net cash inflows; A particular entity can obtain the benefit and control others' access to it; and The transaction or other event-giving rise to the entity's right to or control of the benefit has already occurred.
  • Asset Risk
    in the risk-based capital formula, risk assigned to the company's assets.
  • Assigned Risk
    A governmental pool established to write business declined by carriers in the standard insurance market.
  • Assisted Living Care
    a policy or rider that provides coverage only while a policyholder is confined to an assisted living facility and meets the policy requirements for coverage.
  • Assumed Reinsurance
    the assumption of risk from another insurance entity within a reinsurance agreement or treaty.
  • Asymmetric Key (Public Key)
    An Asymmetric Key (public key) is a security measure that uses two keys to ensure the confidentiality of a message. One key encrypts the message, while the other key decrypts it.
  • Attack
    An attack is an action with malicious intention to interrupt the operations of a network or steal the data, etc
  • Attack Mechanism
    An Attack Mechanism is a system or strategy by which a target is hit; the attacker may use different attack mechanisms such as a container or payload to hit the intended target.
  • Attack Vector
    An Attack Vector is a means and ways by which attacker gains entry into the target system. Attackers mainly use the human element or the weak links to gain such access.
  • Attenuation
    Attenuation is the weakening of signal strength, analog or digital, especially when transmitted over long distances.
  • Audit Trail
    An audit trail is a detailed history of transactions to help you trace a piece of information back to its origin. In the field of computers, Audit trail or paper log, helps maintain security, recover any lost data
  • Authentication
    Authentication is the process of identifying a piece of information, the veracity of information provided. In computers, it is the process of identifying a person or system with the username; password, etc. Authentication helps individuals; systems gain authorization based on their identity.
  • Authenticity
    Authenticity is the proof or validity that a claimed identity (whether human or a resource) is real and legitimate.
  • Authorized Company
    an insurer licensed or admitted to do business in a particular state.
  • Authorized Control Level Risk Based Capital
    theoretical amount of capital plus surplus an insurance company should maintain.
  • Authorized Reinsurance
    reinsurance placed with a reinsurer who is licensed or otherwise allowed to conduct reinsurance within a state.
  • Autorun Worm
    Autorun worms are malicious programs that take advantage of the Windows AutoRun feature. They execute automatically when the device on which they are stored is plugged into a computer.
  • Availability
    Availability is the time duration a system or resource is ready for use.
  • Backdoor
    A backdoor is a method, often secret, of bypassing normal authentication or encryption in a computer system.
  • Backdoor Trojan
    A backdoor Trojan allows someone to take control of a user’s computer without their permission.
  • Backup
    A backup refers to the archiving data so it may be used to restore the original after a data loss event.
  • Balance Sheet
    accounting statement showing the financial condition of a company at a particular date.
  • Bandwidth
    Bandwidth is the capacity of a communication channel to pass data through in a given amount of time.
  • Banner
    A banner is a display on an information system that sets the parameters for system or data use.
  • Banner Grabbing
    Banner grabbing is the process of grabbing banner information such as the application type and version. This information is then transmitted by a remote port when a connection is initiated.
  • Baseline
    A security baseline defines a set of basic security objectives which must be met by any given service or system.
  • Baseline Security
    Baseline security is the minimum set of security controls required for safeguarding an IT system. Baseline security is based upon a system’s identified needs for confidentiality, integrity and availability protection
  • Bastion
    A Bastion is a system of high level of security protection; such a system offers very strong protection against attacks.
  • Bastion Host
    A bastion host is a special services computer on a network that is designed to withstand attacks.
  • Behavioral Outcome
    A Behavioral outcome is what an individual who has completed a specific training module is expected to accomplish on regular IT security job performance.
  • Beneficiary
    an individual who may become eligible to receive payment due to will, life insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, trust, or other contract.
  • Biometrics
    Biometrics are a security system, which takes into account the unique physiological characteristics of a person such as fingerprints, DNA, hair, etc., for identification purposes.
  • Bit Error Rate
    A bit error rate is the ratio between the number of bits incorrectly received and the total number of bits transmitted in a telecommunications system
  • Black Core
    A black core is a communication network architecture in which user data traversing a global internet protocol (IP) is end-to-end encrypted at the IP layer.
  • Blacklist
    A blacklist is a basic access control mechanism that allows through all elements except those explicitly mentioned.
  • Blanket Coverage
    coverage for property and liability that extends to more than one location, class of property or employee.
  • Blended Attack
    A blended attack is a hostile action with the intent of spreading malicious code.
  • Block Cipher
    A Block Cipher is a method used to cipher text, information by encrypting data in blocks, strings, or group at a time rather encrypting individual bits.
  • Block Cipher Algorithm
    A Block cipher algorithm is a family of functions and their inverses parameterized by a cryptographic key in which the function map bit strings of a fixed length to bit strings of the same length.
  • Bonds
    a form of debt security whereby the debt holder has a creditor stake in the company. Obligations issued by business units, governmental units and certain nonprofit units having a fixed schedule for one or more future payments of money; includes commercial paper, negotiable certificates of deposit, repurchase agreements and equipment trust certificates